Write a thoughtful answer to the two questions I pose. Make sure to address all parts of the question. 2 paragraphs or at least 10 sentences is a safe barometer for each question.

1. Investiture Controversy documents: What was at stake in this controversy between Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII? Why was excommunication such a powerful tool? How does this exchange help us understand the structure of the High Middle Ages?

2. The Crusades: How did Pope Urban appeal to his audience to go on crusade? Be specific. Why did they literally agree to drop everything and ride thousands of miles to a foreign land? What did they do when they reached heir goal? How are the two texts connected (Robert the Monk and William of Tyre).