discussion a race and gender in 19th century art discussion b assimilation amp assignment e 4

Discussion A: Race and Gender in 19th-century art

Read the discussion about interpretations of race and gender in the sculpture of Edmonia Lewis in Chapter 3.

One of Edmonia Lewis’ most famous sculptures is Forever Free from 1867. Feel free to discuss this sculpture OR add other examples of her art.

In what ways can we analyze the depiction of race and/or gender in the art of Edmonia Lewis?


Other questions to consider:
Where does the title of the sculpture come from?
What aspects of the sculpture express the theme of Forever Free?

Can you think of other works of art with a similar theme?

Please answer these questions around 250+ words and write down your point of view!

Discussion B: Assimilation

In the 19th century, the United States expanded rapidly in population – through large families, immigration, and (initially) importation of African slaves. It also expanded rapidly in territory – through purchases, annexations, wars, and treaties. These changes led to a country with one of the most diverse populations in the world, but with government policies such as Jim Crow laws, Indian boarding schools, Exclusion acts, etc. that functioned to maintain a culture with a widespread belief in the necessity of conforming to the dominant white, Anglo-Saxon culture.

That tension between assimilation and identification with diverse cultural roots continues today in the U.S. and elsewhere. A few years ago, Absolut Vodka ran an ad in Mexican media that caused an uproar with some people in the United States.


It depicted a map of North America with Mexico’s boundaries restored to those prior to the Mexican-American War. There are some opponents of increased immigration that believe that there is a deliberate strategy for Mexican immigrants to take over the Southwest. In 2010, Arizona’s controversial AB 1070 law was in part a reaction to the stresses of a large unassimilated immigrant population. In the years that followed, some other states passed similar laws. Now the Trump administration is planning and building a wall to separate Mexico from the U.S.


What are the relative merits of assimilation and diversity? Can you find artworks in chapter 3 that reflect assimilation? Or artworks that maintain cultural traditions or that reflect diversity in America?

Please answer these questions around 250+ words and write down your point of view!

Assignment E.4

Political cartoons have been around for centuries, expressing widespread opinions. This image is a late 19th-century cover from the humor magazine Puck.

Puck lose pigtail.jpg



Racist stereotypes of Chinese were common in publications at this time. Examine the imagery in this cartoon. What does it say about the relations between different cultures? What elements does it use to convey its message?

Look up definitions of the term “Manifest Destiny” from a source other than the textbook. How might the idea of Manifest Destiny relate to the image above? Note sources used.

Considering the information presented in the last section of Chapter 3, what reasons might there be for the lack of recognition for Chinese artists working in the U.S. in the late 19th century?


Here is a rare self portrait by artist and photographer Lai Yong. How does this picture differ from the Puck cover?

Please write the short essay around 500+ words!

All the imformation you can find in the file!

Password for 03chapter: banjo

password for 04chapter: harlem