1 page essay for PART A ( 300 words count)
2 full pages for answering PART B (700 +words count)
Part A!!!!. Answer one!!!!! of the following short answer questions (one-half page or 250 to 300 words; 12 pts).
1. Discuss the contributions of one prominent archaeologist from your text and explain what they are known for. What were their primary contributions to the field of archaeology?
2. Briefly discuss the Mesolithic as a cultural stage. Examine a set of archaeological sites that show the age and the geographical and cultural complexity of this adaptation. What kind of subsistence methods were characteristic?
3. Consider the evidence for a shift/change from hunter-gatherer subsistence to food producer subsistence economies. What are the key indicators of this shift and what kinds of artifacts would you expect to find to document such a change? List at least 1-2 of the primary artifacts that are characteristic of each subsistence economy and explain how they were used.
4. Write about the global appearance of early domesticated plants. Which areas were the focal points and what plants do we find archaeological traces of in these areas?
B. Answer ONLY ONE !!!!! of the following longer-answer questions. The response to the question should be 1 to 1.5 pages (650 to 700 words; 28 points) and single-spaced for this midterm. Your answers should be a synthesis of your own knowledge of the material presented in this course. Be sure to include specific evidence and archaeological details in your answers and incorporate in-depth discussions of the topics to demonstrate your understanding of the materials.
1. How and when did humans arrive in the New World? Explain the current archaeological evidence from which we derive our understanding of how humans migrated into the New World. Outline at least twohypotheses for how peoples migrated/spread into the Americas. Be sure to include at least threearchaeological sites and the associated archaeological remains and/or artifacts that support either theory. Choose which route you believe was used and explain with archaeological details why you think it was the most likely route.
2. How is the colonization of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) related to the initial settlement of the rest of the Pacific Islands (from Sahuland to the edges of Polynesia). You may use your Feder text, other assigned reading, and the appropriate websites listed in Canvas regarding this. Discuss how this settlement relates to colonization of places like Australia and the New World. What kinds of archaeological evidence supports your interpretation? Is this an illustration of Feder’s “expanding geographic horizons?”
3. Why is the development of agriculture an important transition from previous lifeways? Select twoagricultural societies we have read about this term and discuss: (1) the major species of domesticated plants and animals they used and when they were domesticated, and (2) why these domesticates were important to each society (culturally, economically, and ecologically). Explain at least two types of cultural changes that are associated with the shift from a mobile to a more sedentary lifestyle.
4. Review the evidence for the Homo erectus or Homo sapiens stage of human evolution. Reference the key sites and dates, the anatomical and behavioral patterns, and the geographical range of the species. Archaeologically, what does the culture of the Homo species you have selected look like? In answering this, be sure to discuss specific artifacts and at least two archaeological sites that inform us about the cultural elaboration of this fossil human stage.
5. Briefly, review the evidence for an “Agricultural Revolution.” Did this take place rapidly all over the world as people discovered food production, or was it a different process in various places around the globe? What are the archaeological indicators (i.e., artifacts, faunal remains, human skeletal indicators, etc.) of an agricultural subsistence system? Be sure to address the question of when this was taking place and in what part of the world.
Here is the in-class source: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iaPAW3ng2t-5YAtry…
For the essay questions, please note that your answer is restricted in space, so be sure to write carefully in your own words. You MUST CITE any in-class or outside sources (both in text and in a final bibliography). As in your previous written assignments, citations should be formal and follow a common archaeological format (e.g., American Antiquity style sheet or Chicago Manual of Style) with all pertinent information (author name, year, and page number for quotations). You will have some choice in questions you select to answer.